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Fourth Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plant Conference

Program

Monday, March 22, 2004

1:00 p.m. - 5:00 p.m. Registration, Corbett Center

5:00 p.m. - 7:00 p.m. All-conference mixer in the Tularosa Room at the Hilton Las Cruces, 705 S. Telshor Blvd., Las Cruces, NM

Tuesday, March 23, 2004

8:00 a.m. - 12:00 a.m. Late Registration, Corbett Center

Opening Remarks
8:30 a.m. - 9:00 a.m.

8:30 a.m. Welcome and acknowledgments

Paper Session I - Taxonomy and Genetics
9:00 a.m. - 3:00 p.m.

Moderator: Mima Falk, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

9:00 a.m. Baker, M.A. Arizona State University, P.O. Box 874501, Tempe, Arizona 85287-4501. Elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis.

9:30 a.m. Stubben, C.J. and B.G. Milligan. Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003. Conservation implications of spur length variation in long-spur columbines (Aquilegia longissima).

10:00 a.m. Break

10:30 a.m. Anderson, J.L. Bureau of Land Management, 21605 N. Seventh Ave., Phoenix, Arizona 85027. A tale of two rare wild buckwheats, Eriogonum subgenus Eucycla (Polygonaceae), from southeastern Arizona.

11:00 a.m. Porter, J.M.1 and K.D. Heil2. 1Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1500 N. College Ave., Claremont, California 91711, 2Department of Math and Science, San Juan College, 4601 College Blvd., Farmington, New Mexico 87401. Two new endemic members of Polemoniaceae from the Four Corners Region.

11:30 a.m. Anderson, J.L.1, S. Richmond-Williams2, and O. Williams2. 1Bureau of Land Management, 21605 N. Seventh Ave., Phoenix, Arizona 85027, 2Bureau of Land Management, 1800 Marquess, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88005. Penstemon lanceolatus or P. ramosus in Arizona and New Mexico, a peripheral or an endemic species?

12:00 a.m. Lunch

1:30 p.m. Windham, M.D. and T. Meyer. University of Utah, Utah Museum of Natural History, 1390 E. President's Circle, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112. Biosystematic studies of Cronquist's woodyaster (Xylorhiza cronquistii), a rare southern Utah endemic.

2:00 p.m. Topinka, J.R.1, A.J. Donovan2, J. Anderson3 and B. May1. 1Department of Animal Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California. 2The Bee Works, 1870 West Prince Rd., Suite 16, Tucson, Arizona. 3Bureau of Land Management, 21605 N. Seventh Ave., Phoenix, Arizona. Genetic evaluation of the taxonomic status of Kearney's bluestar, Amsonia kearneyana (Apocynaceae).

2:30 p.m. Lara, C.J.1, R.L Rankin2 and D. Caprioglio1. 1Colorado State University, 2200 Bonforte Blvd., Pueblo, Colorado 81001, 2Trinidad State Junior College, 600 Prospect St., Trinidad, Colorado 81082. Genetic diversity in the rare Canadian River spiny aster using RAPD PCR technique.

3:00 p.m. Break

Panel Discussion - Drought in the Southwest
3:30 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.

Moderator: Nancy Morin, The Arboretum at Flagstaff

3:30 p.m. Implications for rare plants from the possibility of long-term drought in the Southwest.

Panelists:
Daniela Roth, Navajo Natural Heritage Program, Flagstaff, Arizona
John Anderson, Bureau of Land Management, Phoenix, Arizona
Deb Clark, Bureau of Land Management, Richfield Utah

Wednesday, March 24, 2004

Paper Session II - Threats, Protection Strategies, and Recovery
8:30 a.m. - 11:00 a.m.
Moderator: Tom Wootten, T&E Inc.

8:30 a.m. Cockman, J.S. Bureau of Land Management, Safford Field Office, Safford, Arizona 85546. Status of Peebles Navajo cactus on Bureau of Land Management lands in northern Arizona.

9:00 a.m. Donovan, A.J.1,2, R. Topinka3 and J. Anderson4. 1School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 2The Bee Works, Tucson, Arizona, 3Genomic Variation Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California, 4Bureau of Land Management, 21605 N. Seventh Ave., Phoenix, Arizona. An integrated approach to the conservation of the Kearney's bluestar, an endangered plant in Arizona.

9:30 a.m. Powell, E.1 and G. Marrs-Smith2. 1National Park Service, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, 601 Nevada Highway, Boulder City, Nevada 89005. 2Bureau of Land Management, 4701 N. Torrey Pines Dr., Las Vegas, Nevada 89130. Is the Las Vegas bearpoppy an endangered species?

10:00 a.m. Break

10:30 a.m. Sivinski, R.C.1 and C. McDonald2. 1New Mexico Forestry Division, P.O. Box 1948, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87504, 2USDA-Forest Service, 333 Broadway Blvd., SE, Rm. 209, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87102. Knowlton's cactus (Pediocactus knowltonii): eighteen years of monitoring and recovery actions.

Paper Session III - Partnerships
11:00 a.m. - 11:30 a.m.

Moderator: Tom Wootten, T&E Inc.

11:00 a.m. Clark, T.O.1, L.A. Armstrong 2 and R.B. Campbell, Jr.3. 1Capitol Reef National Park, HC 70, Box 15, Torrey, Utah 84775, 2Bureau of Land Management, 150 E. 900 N., Richfield, Utah 84701, 3Fishlake National Forest, 115 E. 900 N., Richfield, Utah 84701. Interagency partnership in rare plant conservation.

Paper Session IV - Reproduction and Pollination Ecology
11:30 a.m. - 12:00 a.m.

Moderator: Tom Wootten, T&E Inc.

11:30 a.m. Tonne, P.C. and T.D. Meehan. New Mexico Natural Heritage Program, Museum of Southwestern Biology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131. Pollination ecology of Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus.

12:00 a.m. Lunch

Special Session - Peirson's Milkvetch, Biology in Public Land Use Decisions
1:30 p.m. - 3:30 p.m.

Moderator: Daniela Roth, Navajo Natural Heritage Program

1:30 p.m. Patterson, D.R. Center for Biological Diversity, POB 710, Tucson, Arizona 85702. Off-road vehicle threats and BLM management issues at the Algodones Dunes for conservation and recovery of Peirson's milkvetch (Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii), a threatened sand dune endemic in southeastern California.

2:00 p.m. Porter, J.M.1, S. Hobbs1, O. Mistretta1, and K.D. Heil2. 1Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1500 N. College Ave., Claremont, California 91711, 2Department of Math and Science, San Juan College, 4601 College Blvd., Farmington, New Mexico 87401. Reproductive ecology of Peirson's milkvetch (Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii).

2:30 p.m. Phillips, A.M., III. Botanical and Environmental Consulting, P.O. Box 201, Flagstaff, Arizona 86002. Legal, political, and biological issues in the management of Peirson's milkvetch (Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii), a sand dune endemic in southeastern California.

3:00 p.m. Willoughby, J.W. Bureau of Land Management, California State Office, 2800 Cottage Way, Sacramento, California 95825. Monitoring of Peirson's milkvetch (Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii) in the Algodones Dunes, Imperial County, California, 1998-2002.

Poster Session
3:30 p.m. - 5:00 p.m.

Barlow-Irick, P. Museum of Southwestern Biology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131. Monitoring Cirsium vinaceum by bolting stem counts and digital imagery.

Clark, D.J.1 and D.A.Tait2. 1Bureau of Land Management, 150 E. 900 N., Richfield, Utah 84701, 2Fishlake National Forest, 115 E. 900 N., Richfield, Utah 84701. Interagency rare plant team inventory results from 1999 through 2003.

Currie, M. and T. Ayers. Northern Arizona University, Biological Sciences, South Beaver St., Flagstaff, Arizona 86011. Origin and adaptive radiation of a hanging garden endemic in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.

Donovan, A.J.1,2 and R. Topinka3. 1School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 2The Bee Works, Tucson, Arizona, 3Genomic Variation Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California. The pollination ecology of Kearney's bluestar (Amsonia kearneyana: Apocynaceae).

Kelso, S.1, N. Bower2, P. Halteman1, K. Tenney2, and S. Weaver3. 1Deptartment of Biology, 2Department of Chemistry, and 3Department of Geology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80903. Dune communities of southeastern Colorado: patterns of rarity, disjunction, and succession.

Long, J.W. and A.L. Medina. Rocky Mountain Research Station, US Forest Service, 2500 S. Pine Knoll Dr., Flagstaff, Arizona 86001. Geologic associations of Arizona Willow in the White Mountains, Arizona.

McIntosh, M.E.1, L.A. McDade1,2, A.E. Boyd3 and P.D. Jenkins1. 1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, 2Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Ben Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103, 3Warren Wilson College, P.O. Box 9000, Asheville, North Carolina 28815. Patterns of growth and mortality in the endangered Nichol's turk's head cactus (Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii L. Benson; Cactaceae) in southeastern Arizona.

Mygatt, J. The University of New Mexico Herbarium, Museum of Southwestern Biology, Department of Biology, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131. New Mexico rare plants - a web-based field guide.

Rankin, R.L. and R.J. Santisteven. Trinidad State Junior College, 600 Prospect, Trinidad, Colorado 81082. Recovery strategies for the rare Canadian River spiny aster on the Bosque del Oso Wildlife Management Area, Colorado.

Reeves, L.M. and L. Lundquist. San Juan College Herbarium, San Juan College, 4601 College Blvd., Farmington, New Mexico 87402. The Flora of the Four Corners Region Project as a means for discovering new populations and records of the region's endemic and rare plants and making them available for studies of rare plant monitoring and interrelationships.

Skarsgard, A.G.1 and C.J. Stubben2. 1NASA White Sands Test Facility, P.O. Box 20, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88004, 2New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003. Conservation of Peniocereus greggii at the White Sands Test Facility.

Terry, M.1, D. Price2 and J. Poole2. 1Department of Biology, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, Texas 79832, 2Wildlife Diversity Branch, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 3000 S. IH-35, Suite 100, Austin, Texas 78704. A tale of two cacti - the complex relationship between peyote (Lophophora williamsii) and the endangered star cactus (Astrophytum asterias).

Titus, P.J.2 and J.H. Titus1,2. 1Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, Palisades, New York, 2618 W. Placita de la Poza, Tucson, Arizona 85704. Huachuca water umbel monitoring - a disturbance-adapted endangered southeastern Arizona wetland plant.

Topinka, J.R.1, A.J. Donovan2 and B. May1. 1Department of Animal Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616, 2The Bee Works, 1870 West Prince Rd. Suite 16, Tucson, Arizona 85705. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Kearney's bluestar (Amsonia kearneyana) and cross-amplification in other Amsonia species.

Thursday, March 25, 2004

Paper Session V - Surveys and Monitoring
8:30 a.m. - 11:30 a.m.
Moderator:

8:30 a.m. Heil, K.D.1, S. O'Kane2 and A. Clifford1. 1Department of Math and Science, San Juan College, 4601 College Blvd., Farmington, New Mexico 87401, 2Department of Biology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614. Rare and endangered plants of the San Juan River drainage in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah.

9:00 a.m. Clifford, A.1, K.D. Heil1 and S. O'Kane2. 1Department of Math and Science, San Juan College, 4601 College Blvd., Farmington, New Mexico 87401, 2Department of Biology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa, 50614. Rare and endangered plants of the Navajo Nation, San Juan River drainage Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah.

9:30 a.m. Charlton, D. Botanist Charis Corporation, 222 East Main St. Suite 216, Barstow, California 92311. Determining the population boundaries, population density and ecology of a rare perennial plant species with a narrow ecological and geographic range in San Bernardino, California.

10:00 a.m. Break

10:30 a.m. Rankin, R.L., D. Maxwell, R. Eales and M.K. Patrick. Trinidad State Junior College, 600 Prospect, Trinidad, Colorado 81082. Distribution and microhabitat of the rare Canadian River spiny aster in Colorado.

11:00 a.m. Hughes, L.E. Bureau of Land Management, 345 E. Riverside Dr., St. George, Utah 84790. Monitoring update on four listed plants on the Arizona Strip.

11:30 a.m. Lunch

Paper Session VI - Rarity and Distribution
1:00 p.m. - 2:30 p.m.

Moderator: Jackie Poole, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department

1:00 p.m. Allphin, L.1, and M. D. Windham2. 1Department of Integrative Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, 2Utah Museum of Natural History, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112. Patterns associated with rarity and endemism in the genus Draba from the Intermountain region of western North America, USA.

1:30 p.m. Faull, M.R. California State Parks, Mojave Desert Sector, 43779 North 15th Street West, Lancaster, California 93534. Regional endemism in the northwestern Mojave Desert of California as represented by Deinandra arida.

2:00 a.m. Long, J.W. Rocky Mountain Research Station, US Forest Service, 2500 S. Pine Knoll Dr., Flagstaff, Arizona 86001. Relationships between rare plants of the White Mountains, Arizona and the late Cenozoic geology of the Colorado Plateau.

2:30 p.m. Break

Paper Session VII - Autecology
3:00 p.m. - 4:30 p.m.

Moderator: Jackie Poole, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department

3:00 p.m. Bush, J.K.1 and O.W. Van Auken2. 1Department of Biology and 2Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249. Competitive ability of Helianthus paradoxus (puzzle or Pecos sunflower).

3:30 p.m. Sivinski, R.C. New Mexico Forestry Division, P.O. Box 1948, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87504. Effects of a natural fire on a Kuenzler's hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleri) and nylon hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus viridiflorus var. cylindricus) population in southeastern New Mexico.

4:00 p.m. Narog, M.1, C. Sclafani1, C. Escobar1, K. Kramer2 and J. Beyers1. 1USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, California 92507, 2 San Bernardino National Forest, San Jacinto Ranger District, 54270 Pinecrest, Idyllwild, California 92549. Initial response of Arabis johnstonii to fire.




Conference Scope

Geographic Area Covered

Papers and poster sessions presented at this conference should be on research done within an area that includes the Sonoran and Mojave deserts on the west, the Colorado Plateau and Southern Rocky Mountains on the north, the Chihuahuan Desert and High Plains Grasslands on the east, the Chihuahuan and Sonoran deserts on the south, and all mountain ranges within these regional limits. We anticipate a United States focus, but topics on rare Mexican plants are also welcome.

Plants Covered

Research must be on flowering plants, gymnosperms, ferns, fern allies, mosses, or liverworts. We are sorry, but we cannot accept papers or poster sessions on algae, fungi, or lichens unless it concerns interactions with rare plants in the other groups being covered.

Most rare plants can be identified by their Natural Heritage Program ranks of G1, G2, S1, or S2. Threatened or endangered plants include those on official lists of threatened, endangered, species of concern, special status, at risk, or sensitive plants maintained by Federal or State agencies.

Research Covered

Papers and poster sessions presented at this conference will cover all aspects of population biology, genetics, ecology, reproductive biology, systematics, monitoring, management, and recovery of rare, threatened, or endangered plants. The rare, threatened, or endangered plants need to be the central focus of the research or project. For instance, a riparian restoration project where a rare plant is present would not be an acceptable topic unless a main purpose of the project was to improve the status of the rare plant. Likewise, systematics research on a group of plants where some of them are rare would not be an acceptable topic unless a main focus of the study was to understand the relationships of the rare plants.




Presentation Abstracts

The abstracts for presentations will be posted here as they are submitted. They are organized in alphatetical order by author. You can also view the abstracts organized by subject.

Allphin, L.1, and M. D. Windham2. 1Department of Integrative Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, 2Utah Museum of Natural History, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112. Patterns associated with rarity and endemism in the genus Draba from the Intermountain region of western North America, USA. ORAL PRESENTATION

With a growing number of plant species in danger of extinction due to human induced threats, species-by-species approaches to management are becoming unrealistic. In order to protect these species, we need to determine whether there are patterns associated with rarity and endemism that would facilitate the development of management strategies applicable to a wide range of rare taxa. For this study, we surveyed species in the genus Draba from the Intermountain West, the region with the highest concentration of endemics. We collected data on geographic distribution, degree of endemism, chromosome number, ploidy level, breeding system and reproductive success for most of the rare, endemic Draba species occurring in Utah, Idaho, and Nevada. The study revealed some interesting evolutionary and biogeographic patterns. For example, endemic Draba species from the Wasatch and Rocky Mountain regions were primarily diploid, outcrossing, paleoendemic species with relatively low fecundity. Conversely, endemic Draba species from the Great Basin region of western Utah and Nevada were primarily polyploid, autogamous, neoendemics with relatively high fecundity. These patterns appear to reflect both the type of speciation that occurred and the geologic/biogeographic history of the region.

Anderson, J.L. Bureau of Land Management, 21605 N. Seventh Ave., Phoenix, Arizona 85027. A tale of two rare wild buckwheats, Eriogonum subgenus Eucycla (Polygonaceae), from southeastern Arizona. ORAL PRESENTATION

Unusual soils, compared to surrounding common soils, act as edaphic habitat islands and often harbor rare plants. These edaphic elements can be disjuncts or endemics. Two rare wild buckwheats from southeastern Arizona that grow on Tertiary lacustrine lakebed deposits have been found to be a disjunct, Eriogonum apachense, and an endemic, Eriogonum terranatum ined. Eriogonum apachense from the Bylas area is a disjunct expression of E. heermannii var. argense, a Mojave Desert taxon from northern Arizona and adjacent California and Nevada, not a distinct endemic species. At an historical location of E. apachense near Vail, Arizona, a new species of Eriogonum, also in subgenus Eucycla, was discovered growing on mudstones of the Oligocene Pantano Formation. It was also recently found on outcrops of the Plio-Pleistocene Saint David Formation above the San Pedro River near Fairbank.

Anderson, J.L.1, S. Richmond-Williams2, and O. Williams2. 1Bureau of Land Management, 21605 N. Seventh Ave., Phoenix, Arizona 85027, 2Bureau of Land Management, 1800 Marquess, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88005. Penstemon lanceolatus or P. ramosus in Arizona and New Mexico, a peripheral or an endemic species? ORAL PRESENTATION

The red-flowered member of Penstemon sect. Chamaeleon from southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico has been treated taxonomically both as part of the Mexican species, P. lanceolatus Benth., and as a separate species, P. ramosus Crosswhite. Under the former treatment the Arizona and New Mexico populations are peripheral populations of a primarily Mexican species; and, under the latter they represent an endemic species restricted to this area. Penstemon ramosus was distinguished from P. lanceolatus by branching below the inflorescence and by having narrow, revolute leaves. Morphological examination of herbarium specimens from Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, and Mexico, including duplicates of paratypes cited in the original publication of P. ramosus, and of field material in Arizona and New Mexico showed no consistent differences in these characters throughout the entire range. Therefore, Arizona and New Mexico plants distinguished as P. ramosus should be treated as peripherals of P. lanceolatus.

Baker, M.A. Arizona State University, P.O. Box 874501, Tempe, Arizona 85287-4501. Elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis. ORAL PRESENTATION

Taxonomic affiliation and geographic distribution among three Escobaria taxa were addressed with morphometric studies. Principle components analysis (PCA) showed good resolution between two sets of individuals, E. guadalupensisand E. sneedii. Resolution was poor between those of E. sneedii var. sneedii and E. sneedii var. leei. Results from discriminant analysis were similar to those of the PCA and the best grouping consisted of only two groups, E. sneedii and E. guadalupensis, which showed a 95% correct classification of individuals within either group. The distinction between E. sneedii var. sneedii and E. sneedii var. leei was not as good; individuals were correctly classified 79% and 80%, respectively. Among the populations considered, Guadalupe Mountains E. sneedii is probably the ancestral form, giving rise to E. guadalupensis to the west and E. sneedii var. leei forms to the east. Franklin Mountains E. sneedii probably represents incipient populations dispersed from the Guadalupe Mountains or residual populations of a once much larger distribution.

Barlow-Irick, P. Museum of Southwestern Biology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131. Monitoring Cirsium vinaceum by bolting stem counts and digital imagery. POSTER

The population dynamics of Cirsium vinaceum, a federally-threatened wetland plant, is of interest to the management of grazing and water use in the Lincoln National Forest. In order to monitor changes in the occurrences of this species, in 1995 the Lincoln National Forest established an inventory protocol by complete census of all populations within the Cloudcroft Ranger District. The protocol developed at that time was counts of bolted stems at over 90 locations where this taxon is found. These inventories were taken in 1995, 1998, 2000, and 2003. In order to supplement the census information, we tried to develop the protocol to document change with digital images. Twelve populations in Water Canyon have been photographed each year since 1998 during the blooming period. Efforts were made to standardize the photo locations and resolution. The results show a surprising stability in the population extent despite a decline in numbers of bolted stems. The combination of digital imagery and stem counts provides a better understanding of population dynamics in this species. The preliminary result suggests that standardization of photograph location, resolution, sky condition, and film color, all contribute to maximizing informational content of digital image inventory methods.

Bush, J.K.1 and O.W. Van Auken2. 1Department of Biology and 2Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78249. Competitive ability of Helianthus paradoxus (puzzle or Pecos sunflower). ORAL PRESENTATION

Helianthus paradoxus (the Pecos sunflower or puzzle sunflower) is a threatened annual species found in a few areas in west Texas and New Mexico. It is a diploid hybrid species, which occurs in saline soils where its progenitors, H. annuus and H. petiolaris, are absent. The effect of soil salinity on the growth and competition between Helianthus paradoxus and its progenitors was examined in a greenhouse experiment to determine the role competition might have in leading to the narrow endemism of H. paradoxus. The response of the target to the competing species was usually dependent on salinity. Helianthus paradoxus was the better competitor in high saline soil and H. annuus the better competitor in low saline soil. Aggressivity values in low saline soil indicated the following competitive hierarchy: H. annuus > H. paradoxus > H. petiolaris. In the higher saline soils the competitive hierarchy was H. paradoxus > H. annuus > H. petiolaris. The ability of H. paradoxus to tolerate higher saline conditions, and perhaps restrict the more widespread H. annuus in saline soils may allow H. paradoxus to survive in inland salt marshes. Data indicate that while H. paradoxus can grow in low saline soil, interference from H. annuus could restrict it, leading to its narrow endemism.

Charlton, D. Botanist Charis Corporation, 222 East Main St. Suite 216, Barstow, California 92311. Determining the population boundaries, population density and ecology of a rare perennial plant species with a narrow ecological and geographic range in San Bernardino, California. ORAL PRESENTATION.

The Lane Mountain milkvetch (Astragalus jagerianus) is a federally listed endangered species. It was discovered in 1939 by Edmund Jaeger in the Central Mojave Desert of California. It was not collected again until the army became interested in expanding Fort Irwin's western boundary in the 1980s. Volunteer efforts since 1985 found a few scattered plants in three distinct populations within 10 miles of each other. Organized army-funded efforts since 1990 resulted in defining the population boundaries of 4 populations. The most extensive surveys occurred in 2001, with 35 botanists and field crew surveying what was ultimately half the known population within the known boundaries. Under excellent flowering conditions a total of nearly 4,000 individuals were located. GIS analysis of an area within 50 miles of the core population identified other potential habitat. Those areas were surveyed extensively but failed to locate new populations. The Lane Mountain milkvetch is both limited in geographic range and ecological requirements. GIS analysis has documented the limited soil and elevation range of this species. Ecological studies regarding the moisture holding capacity of the substrate and the plants pollination ecology have also been conducted.

Clark, D.J.1 and D.A.Tait2. 1Bureau of Land Management, 150 E. 900 N., Richfield, Utah 84701, 2Fishlake National Forest, 115 E. 900 N., Richfield, Utah 84701. Interagency rare plant team inventory results from 1999 through 2003. POSTER

Fishlake National Forest, Dixie National Forest, Bureau of Land Management (Richfield and Price Field Offices), and Capitol Reef National Park became partners in an Interagency Program to inventory and monitor threatened, endangered, and sensitive (TES) plant species shared by these agencies. From 1999 to 2003, the Interagency Rare Plant Team surveyed and recorded over 400 new locations for 32 TES plant species by covering more than 70,000 acres of federally managed lands. GIS and GPS technologies were used to predict and map all known and newly discovered occurrences of rare plants in the study area. Sufficient population numbers and occurrence data was gathered during the course of this project to pursue delisting of one of the federally listed threatened species and has allowed the Utah Natural Heritage rarity status of seven sensitive species to be downgraded. Knowledge gained about these species and their habitat requirements has helped determine which species are truly rare and in need of additional conservation actions. In addition, results from this project help determine which species and populations should be monitored to find out if specific human activities are affecting them and will enable federal land managers to ensure that those plants are protected.

Clark, T.O.1, L.A. Armstrong 2 and R.B. Campbell, Jr.3. 1Capitol Reef National Park, HC 70, Box 15, Torrey, Utah 84775, 2Bureau of Land Management, 150 E. 900 N., Richfield, Utah 84701, 3Fishlake National Forest, 115 E. 900 N., Richfield, Utah 84701. Interagency partnership in rare plant conservation. ORAL PRESENTATION

The Waterpocket Fold and San Rafael Swell in south-central Utah encompass spectacular scenery and unique geologic features. The convergence of semi-arid environmental conditions, rapid elevation change, and unique geologic substrates has resulted in extremely high levels of plant endemism. Numerous federally listed and candidate plant species occur in the area and 32 additional species are considered endemic and rare. In the past, each federal agency did rare plant work on its land as funds became available, resulting in a piecemeal approach to species management. In 1999, Capitol Reef National Park, Bureau of Land Management Richfield Field Office, Fishlake National Forest, and Dixie National Forest developed an interagency agreement to hire a botanist and coordinate inventories for these species across agency boundaries. Opportunities for leveraging funding were significantly enhanced through this agreement and two non-federal partners, Capitol Reef Natural History Association and Utah Native Plant Society, contributed money to the effort. During the past four years, federal and non-federal partners have pooled resources to generate over $400,000 of funding for the project. Information gathered during this partnership has enabled the participating agencies to coordinate their management of rare plants and to meet the fundamental beneficial intent of the Endangered Species Act.

Clifford, A.1, K.D. Heil1 and S. O'Kane2. 1Department of Math and Science, San Juan College, 4601 College Blvd., Farmington, New Mexico 87401, 2Department of Biology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa, 50614. Rare and endangered plants of the Navajo Nation, San Juan River drainage Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah. ORAL PRESENTATION

The Navajo Indian Reservation portion of the San Juan River drainage basin has historically been under-explored and poorly collected botanically since the inception of early southwestern botany. Early botanists have collected in the general region but have fallen short of adequately documenting the flora of the area. The Navajo Nation portion of the Four Corners Flora Project contributes a large landmass that plays host to a highly diversified and often rare flora.

Over time, geologic processes have weathered, eroded, and exposed various unique landforms, monstrous monoclines, upwarps, and other interesting geologic structures. The resulting geologic processes have provided many unique micro-habitats and ecological niches that have influenced specialization of the plants that occur in these harsh environmental-ecological conditions. It is these relatively stable, long-term conditions that have driven the numerous species to evolve and become separated from other related plants and to gradually evolve as new species. As a consequence of the renewed interest in the flora of the Navajo Nation, the Four Corners Flora Project has provided an avenue in which there is more intensive fieldwork and collecting of specimens on the Navajo Nation. This study has yielded important information on plant distribution and rare species range extensions with several new species being described. These newly discovered plants are known only from a relatively small geographical area with a few from only the type locality.

Cockman, J.S. Bureau of Land Management, Safford Field Office, Safford, Arizona 85546. Status of Peebles Navajo cactus on Bureau of Land Management lands in northern Arizona. ORAL PRESENTATION

Peebles Navajo cactus (Pediocactus peeblesianus var. peeblesianus) was listed as an endangered species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on October 26, 1979. In the past, the taxon has been threatened by collection and habitat destruction from highway construction, gravel pit operations, off-road vehicle use, and livestock trampling. In January, 1985, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) finalized a habitat management plan to assist in the recovery of Peebles Navajo cactus. A population on BLM land has been monitored since 1980. BLM recently exchanged land with a gravel operation to further protect this population. Recent monitoring suggests that an intensive inventory of the cactus in the area of the land exchange and contiguous BLM land outside of the exchange may be in order.

Currie, M. and T. Ayers. Northern Arizona University, Biological Sciences, South Beaver St., Flagstaff, Arizona 86011. Origin and adaptive radiation of a hanging garden endemic in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. POSTER

Islands have long interested students of evolution and biogeography. Hanging gardens on the Colorado Plateau are "virtual islands" which exist within continental ecosystems. They are isolated by intervening desert habitat that restricts migration much the same way as the ocean isolates island populations. Because hanging gardens are rare ecosystems with endemic flora and fauna, it is crucial that these communities be the focus of detailed studies in order to supply land mangers with pertinent information, which can be used in making management decisions. The Alcove bog orchid (Platanthera zothecina Higgens & Welsh) is endemic to hanging gardens in the Four Corners area and may represent a relic from a more widespread Pleistocene flora. It may be related to Platanthera sparsiflora S. Wats., which grows at higher elevations in Rocky Mountain alpine meadows. Platanthera zothecina is the focus of molecular systematic studies using three genetic markers (ITS, matK, atpB). Preliminary results support the recognition of P. zothecina as a distinct species endemic to the southern Colorado Plateau. Populations appear to share genetic similarity based upon geographic proximity. Population genetic studies using AFLP data are planned for the near future to estimate genetic diversity of individual populations within Glen Canyon.

Donovan, A.J.1,2 and R. Topinka3. 1School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 2The Bee Works, Tucson, Arizona, 3Genomic Variation Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California. The pollination ecology of Kearney's bluestar (Amsonia kearneyana: Apocynaceae). POSTER

Amsonia kearneyana is a geographically restricted species limited to small populations scattered on steep hillsides in the Baboquivari Mountains in Arizona. We examined the floral visitors and the breeding systems of two populations: 1)Brown Canyon, the largest known natural population of the bluestar with approximately 300 individual plants, and 2) South Canyon, a restored population located in a drainage with approximately 30 individual plants. Floral visitors include skippers (Hesperidae) and swallowtails (Papilionidae), small bees (Halictidae), large bees (Anthophoridae), and hummingbirds. Data on fruit production, seed set, and the type of breeding system are discussed. The restored population had significantly less floral visitors and lower fruit set compared to the natural population. Designing rare plant restoration efforts to enhance pollination is discussed.

Donovan, A.J.1,2, R. Topinka3 and J. Anderson4. 1School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, 2The Bee Works, Tucson, Arizona, 3Genomic Variation Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California, 4Bureau of Land Management, 21605 N. Seventh Ave., Phoenix, Arizona. An integrated approach to the conservation of the Kearney's bluestar, an endangered plant in Arizona. ORAL PRESENTATION

Kearney's blue star, Amsonia kearneyana (Apocynaceae) is a rare endemic plant that occurs in a number of small, spatially isolated populations in the Baboquivari Mountains, Pima County, Arizona. In 1988, the species was considered to be at substantial risk of extirpation and efforts were made to establish a population in Brown Canyon, a main drainage off the eastern flank of the Babobquivari Mountains. A combination of flooding and drought between 1988 and 1993 reduced the transplant population by 75%. In 1989, the species was listed as a Category 1 Candidate by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. In 1998, more populations were located and mapped resulting in more accurate population estimates. Current research has examined: 1) the reproductive biology, 2) the potential and known geographic distribution based on an ecological model, 3) the demographic data from a transplanted population, and 4) the genetic analysis of the species. Integrating data from past and ongoing studies is a challenge for biologists and land managers. Research projects on endangered plant species often generate large amounts of data from different workers from different institutions over several years. Retrieving and integrating information from various sources is critical to the success of a project. This presentation will discuss how to manage and integrate data on endangered plant species from different sources and past projects. Future threats to the species will also be addressed.

Faull, M.R. California State Parks, Mojave Desert Sector, 43779 North 15th Street West, Lancaster, California 93534. Regional endemism in the northwestern Mojave Desert of California as represented by Deinandra arida. ORAL PRESENTATION

The annual plant Deinandra (Hemizonia) arida of the Asteraceae represents a severely restricted endemic species known only from the western half of the El Paso Mountains of Kern County, California. Found entirely within the boundaries of Red Rock Canyon State Park, this intriguing species displays a strong preference for particular geologic substrates. Deinandra arida, a California-listed "rare" plant, represents only one of a suite of endemic plant and animal species, which are spatially constricted to a corridor within the northwestern Mojave Desert of California. Many display similar and sometimes overlapping patterns of geologic preference. Viewed together, these collective species and their apparent preferred habitats might provide clues as to potential common evolutionary circumstances that led to their encumbrance in a somewhat restricted zone of primarily desert landscape.

Heil, K.D.1, S. O'Kane2 and A. Clifford1. 1Department of Math and Science, San Juan College, 4601 College Blvd., Farmington, New Mexico 87401, 2Department of Biology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, Iowa 50614. Rare and endangered plants of the San Juan River drainage in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. ORAL PRESENTATION

Four years of extensive fieldwork have lead to a large number of range extensions to numerous rare and endangered species found throughout the Four Corners region. In the Four Corners region, most rare plant taxa are associated with specific geologic formations. Where these formations outcrop there is potential for rare plant range extensions. For example, the type locality for Erigeron rhizomatous is near Ft. Wingate, in the Zuni Mountains where it is restricted to the Chinle Formation. In the past several years knowledge of geology and fieldwork has yielded several new populations in Arizona and New Mexico. In the Four Corners study area, the Owl Rock Member of the Chinle Formation is home to many rare plants, some of them yet undescribed. In tracing the potential distribution of rare plants, knowledge of habitat, elevation, and specific geologic formation is needed. In the past, the Four Corners was a region where little botanical collecting had taken place; therefore, the distribution of many rare plants was unknown. Further fieldwork will help to determine the rarity, distribution, and threats, before determining what manage practices are needed.

Hughes, L.E. Bureau of Land Management, 345 E. Riverside Dr., St. George, Utah 84790. Monitoring update on four listed plants on the Arizona Strip. ORAL PRESENTATION.

Pediocactus sileri (Engelm.) L. Benson and P. bradyi L. Benson have been monitored since 1985-6, Asclepias welshii N&P Holmgren since 1989, and Cycladenia humilis Benth. var. jonesii Welsh & Atwood since 1993. The two Pediocactus species were monitored in plots where each cactus was tagged, measured for height or width, mapped, tallied for how many cactus fruited, and mortality noted. Asclepias welshii plants were counted, mapped, and each stem was noted whether it had follicles or not. Seedlings were also noted. The Cycladenia humilis var. jonesii (cyclad) were in two plots where counts have been done. It was also noted how many ramets had follicles.

Management plans and a biological opinion have been implemented for the two Pediocactus species. The plans and opinion have dealt with the threats listed for the species. They are livestock trampling, off-road vehicle activity, mineral activity, and collection. The effect of recovery actions as seen through the monitoring studies is discussed. A recovery plan exists for Asclepias welshii, however, no plan exists for the cyclad. Monitoring data will be discussed.

Kelso, S.1, N. Bower2, P. Halteman1, K. Tenney2, and S. Weaver3. 1Deptartment of Biology, 2Department of Chemistry, and 3Department of Geology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80903. Dune communities of southeastern Colorado: patterns of rarity, disjunction, and succession. POSTER

Dune communities occur across the western Great Plains and in isolated spots of eastern Colorado. They are biologically important due to the endemic nature of their biota, the rapid succession of plant communities, and their ephemeral abundance in response to climate, grazing practices, and ranchland management. The abundance dune communities has changed considerably over scales from tens to thousands of years. Colorado dune communities have high conservation values due to their unusual biota and diminished presence. They also act as sentinel communities for more wide-scale biotic change in surrounding grasslands. These communities have not received detailed documentation of their interactive biotic and geological profiles in recent years. This study provides such a profile for a dune complex in El Paso County, Colorado where we examine their plant species, vegetation patterns, and geochemical characteristics. Dune communities are threatened in part because of ranchland practices that seek to diminish their presence. We identify here areas of mutual interest and potential collaboration between ranchers and biologists that might serve to mitigate conflicts between conservation goals for a unique biota and the practical exigencies of ranchland management in semi-arid grasslands.

Lara, C.J.1, R.L Rankin2 and D. Caprioglio1. 1Colorado State University, 2200 Bonforte Blvd., Pueblo, Colorado 81001, 2Trinidad State Junior College, 600 Prospect St., Trinidad, Colorado 81082. Genetic diversity in the rare Canadian River spiny aster using RAPD PCR technique. ORAL PRESENTATION

The Canadian River spiny aster, Herrickia (Eurybia, syn.) horrida was formerly listed as a Federal C2 species (possible for listing as threatened or endangered but appropriate or substantial biological data is lacking), is a Nature Conservancy G3/S1 species (globally vulnerable with 21-100 known occurrences and Colorado status as critically imperiled with 5 or fewer known occurrences), and has a New Mexico Rare Plant Technical Council code of 1-1-2. Only four isolated populations are known from Colorado, and all are in Las Animas County. We hypothesized that the Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA by PCR technique (RAPD) could be used to determine the degree of genetic diversity in the Canadian River spiny aster. One leaf each of plants in the isolated population found on Raton Pass in Southern Colorado was collected. The leaves were dried and freeze fractured using liquid nitrogen and then ground to release the DNA. Four DNA extraction methods were used. RAPD PCR was performed using Operon primers M1-M20. Poor DNA yields were obtained overall, but DNA amplification products were obtained with primers M1-M6, M11, and M13-15. The research data presented here is preliminary and the DNA study is ongoing. This research is supported by a NIGMS Bridges to the Biomedical Career grant.

Long, J.W. Rocky Mountain Research Station, US Forest Service, 2500 S. Pine Knoll Dr., Flagstaff, Arizona 86001. Relationships between rare plants of the White Mountains, Arizona and the late Cenozoic geology of the Colorado Plateau. ORAL PRESENTATION

A complex geologic history has shaped the distribution of Arizona willow (Salix arizonica Dorn) and the Mogollon paintbrush (Castilleja mogollonica Pennell). The subalpine plants do not appear to be strict substrate specialists, but they do seem to favor coarse-textured and well-watered soils. Most of their occupied habitats were shaped by Quaternary glaciations, but are ultimately derived from felsic substrates formed before the Pliocene period. Populations of Arizona willow have been identified in the White Mountains of Arizona, the High Plateaus of Utah, and in the Southern Rocky Mountains of New Mexico and Colorado. Species closely related to the Mogollon paintbrush also occur in the Utah plateaus and the Southern Rocky Mountains. Genetic dissimilarity among these populations suggest that these taxa likely share an evolutionary history that extends into the Neogene, when tributaries of the ancestral Colorado River connected young volcanic highlands on the margins of the Colorado Plateau. This history points to the likelihood of additional populations of Arizona willow in the San Juan Mountains, and it suggests that these plants have survived dramatic changes in their environments. These patterns demonstrate the value of analyzing geology at a detailed level when interpreting habitat preferences and distributions of rare species.

Long, J.W. and A.L. Medina. Rocky Mountain Research Station, US Forest Service, 2500 S. Pine Knoll Dr., Flagstaff, Arizona 86001. Geologic associations of Arizona Willow in the White Mountains, Arizona. POSTER

The Arizona willow (Salix arizonica Dorn) is a rare species growing in isolated populations at the margins of the Colorado Plateau. Although its habitat in the White Mountains of Arizona has been mischaracterized as basaltic, the area is actually a complex mixture of felsic, basaltic, and epiclastic formations. Comparing the distribution of the Arizona willow to mapped geologic formations revealed that occupied sites are associated with felsic, coarse-textured Mount Baldy formations. The most robust subpopulations are located in three glaciated reaches, but about half occur in exposures of the Sheep Crossing Formation. Other sites occur in areas mapped as Quaternary basalt, but these lie either downstream from Mount Baldy formations or in areas where the basalt may form a thin mantle over the Sheep Crossing Formation. Glacial deposits, the Sheep Crossing Formation, and large alluvial deposits maintain hydrologic conditions that may favor the willow. However, the Arizona willow is not a strict substrate specialist, since it has survived when transplanted into basaltic areas in Arizona and it grows in different substrates in New Mexico and Utah. Nonetheless, understanding the geologic associations of this rare plant can help to explain its distribution and to design appropriate conservation measures.

McIntosh, M.E.1, L.A. McDade1,2, A.E. Boyd3 and P.D. Jenkins1. 1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, 2Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Ben Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103, 3Warren Wilson College, P.O. Box 9000, Asheville, North Carolina 28815. Patterns of growth and mortality in the endangered Nichol's turk's head cactus (Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii L. Benson; Cactaceae) in southeastern Arizona. POSTER.

Nichol's turk's head cactus (Echinocactus horizonthalonius var. nicholii L. Benson; Cactaceae) occurs in a few isolated populations in the Sonoran desert of south-central Arizona (Pima and Pinal counties). The populations of this variety are disjunct from the more widespread species that occur in the Chihuahuan desert of Texas and Mexico. This species occurs only on limestone-derived soils, and the nicholii variety was federally listed as endangered in 1979. Since 1995 we have monitored study plots of this cactus in the Waterman Mountains (Arizona), measuring growth and reproduction of about 175 tagged individuals. Growth rates were slow, averaging 0.3 cm in height and 0.2 cm in width per year. Plants usually began flowering when they reached around 4 cm high and 8 cm wide. Of the 52 deaths recorded since 1995, about half followed a visible decline in condition; the rest were unanticipated. In about 80% of those in decline, the problem appeared endogenous - sunburn, dehydration, or possibly boring insects. In these cases, the carcass often remained intact following death. The rest had gouges or were dug up. There was a distinct jump in mortality during the past 2 years, possibly due to drought. Additional demographic information will be presented.

Mygatt, J. The University of New Mexico Herbarium, Museum of Southwestern Biology, Department of Biology, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131. New Mexico rare plants - a web-based field guide. POSTER

The New Mexico Rare Plant Technical Council (NMRPTC), an ad-hoc group of volunteer botanists who donate their time and expertise on rare plants, recognized the need for an updated field guide to New Mexico rare plant identification and conservation. With a minimum of funds, the NMRPTC developed an internet version of a rare plant field guide with information on the basic biology and conservation status of New Mexico's approximately 185 rare plants. Photographs, line drawings, and distribution maps accompany the written reports. The website provides botanists, land managers, conservation organizations, and private consultants with the most current and accurate information available for rare plants in New Mexico.

Narog, M.1, C. Sclafani1, C. Escobar1, K. Kramer2 and J. Beyers1. 1USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, California 92507, 2 San Bernardino National Forest, San Jacinto Ranger District, 54270 Pinecrest, Idyllwild, California 92549. Initial response of Arabis johnstonii to fire. ORAL PRESENTATION

Arabis johnstonii (Johnston's rockcress) is an herbaceous perennial endemic occurring in the San Jacinto Mountains of southern California. It is considered rare by the California Native Plant Society, and has been designated a Regional Forester's Sensitive Species by the Pacific Southwest Region, USDA Forest Service. Three distinct A. johnstoni populations live within an area that the San Bernardino National Forest plans to burn for fuel reduction for community safety. Prior to this study, little was known about fire effects on A. johnstonii. We conducted small-scale field trial burns on 25 clusters of A. johnstonii. A circular "fire cage" (1.1 m diameter x 0.62 m tall) constructed of stainless steel woven wire cloth was used as a firewall during the small experimental burns. Test burns were conducted in September 2003 and January 2004. Weather, fuel conditions, and fire behavior variables were documented during the burns. Arabis johnstonii survival, growth, and recruitment will be measured twice a year for up to 3 years after the test fires. Preliminary germination, survival, and growth data from the September 2003 experimental burns is presented here.

Patterson, D.R. Center for Biological Diversity, P.O. Box 710, Tucson, Arizona 85702. Off-road vehicle threats and BLM management issues at the Algodones Dunes for conservation and recovery of the Peirson's milkvetch (Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii), a threatened Sonoran Desert endemic. ORAL PRESENTATION

Peirson's milkvetch (PMV), Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii, is a federally listed threatened plant that lives in the U.S. only at the Algodones Dunes, and it is rare there even in the best habitat conditions. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's final rule in 1998 listing PMV as threatened and its proposed rule in 2003 to designate critical habitat cite off-road vehicles (ORVs) as the primary threat to the species. The dunes are also home to endemics such as the Algodones Dunes sunflower, Helianthus niveus ssp. tephrodes, other rare plants such as sand food, Pholisma sonorae, and ironwood microphyll woodlands. In November 2000, conservation and off-road groups reached an agreement with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to close 49,310 acres of the Algodones Dunes to ORVs to protect PMV and to leave about 70,000 acres open to unlimited ORV use. This closure is to remain in place at least until BLM completes a new dunes management plan. The draft dunes plan favors allowing ORV use in all habitat areas protected by the agreement. Twelve conservation groups are challenging the proposed plan. PMV work funded by the ORV industry since 1999 has not been peer-reviewed or published - it does not show long-term trends, support delisting, or a reversal of the dunes conservation management.

Phillips, A.M., III. Botanical and Environmental Consulting, P.O. Box 201, Flagstaff, Arizona 86002. Legal, political, and biological issues in the management of Peirson's milkvetch (Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii), a sand dune endemic in southeastern California. ORAL PRESENTATION

Listed as threatened in 1998, Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii is a Sonoran Desert sand dune endemic found in the Algodones Dunes in Imperial County, California, and in the Gran Desierto of northwestern Mexico. It has been at the center of a management controversy involving off-highway vehicle use in the dunes, with user groups petitioning for delisting and environmental groups taking legal action to close the dunes to OHV use. Research in the dunes has shown that the milkvetch grows in predictable, limited habitats with a suite of 12 dune endemics. It underwent explosive germination in October 2000, and over half of 72,000 germinants censused flowered and set seed in spring 2001. Additional germination occurred in February and November 2003. Demographic, seed bank, and survival studies have shown that the plant thrives in areas open to OHVs. During 2003, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service issued a "no-jeopardy" finding in response to a Bureau of Land Management management plan, initiated a status review to determine if delisting is warranted in response to a petition from the American Sand Association and others, and published a proposed rule to determine critical habitat in response to a lawsuit by the Center for Biological Diversity and others.

Porter, J.M.1 and K.D. Heil2. 1Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1500 N. College Ave., Claremont, California 91711, 2Department of Math and Science, San Juan College, 4601 College Blvd., Farmington, New Mexico 87401. Two new endemic members of Polemoniaceae from the Four Corners Region. ORAL PRESENTATION

Investigations of floristic diversity in the San Juan River Basin have contributed greatly to our knowledge of endemism in this region. Field and herbarium studies reveal two previously unrecognized taxa of the Polemoniaceae. Comparative morphological and molecular (comparative DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal ITS region and chloroplast trnL-F region) demonstrate that these are members of the Ipomopsis congesta group and the Aliciellia haydenii species complex. We discuss range, abundance, and ecological adaptations of these taxa.

Porter, J.M.1, S. Hobbs1, O. Mistretta1, and K.D. Heil2. 1Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, 1500 N. College Ave., Claremont, California 91711, 2Department of Math and Science, San Juan College, 4601 College Blvd., Farmington, New Mexico 87401. Reproductive ecology of Peirson's milkvetch (Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii). ORAL PRESENTATION

Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii, a federally listed, threatened species, is restricted to the Algodones (Imperial) Dunes, California and Gran Desierto region, Sonora. In spite of the exceptional controversy surrounding this federally protected species, nothing is known regarding the reproductive biology of this taxon. Between December 2001 and December 2003 field and greenhouse investigations were conducted to investigate 1) breeding system, and 2) pollination biology of Peirson's milkvetch. These studies indicate that Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii is an obligate outcrossing species, possessing self-incompatibility. Primary pollen transfer is effected by Habropoda sp. and Bembix sp., insect species restricted to dune habitats. To a lesser degree, some pollination may also be due to solitary bees (families Halictiaeae and Magachilidae) and beefly (family Bombyliidae). We discuss the implications of self-incompatibility for species conservation of Peirson's milkvetch.

Powell, E.1 and G. Marrs-Smith2. 1National Park Service, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, 601 Nevada Highway, Boulder City, Nevada 89005. 2Bureau of Land Management, 4701 N. Torrey Pines Dr., Las Vegas, Nevada 89130. Is the Las Vegas bearpoppy an endangered species? ORAL PRESENTATION

The Las Vegas bearpoppy (Arctomecon californica), a rare and endemic plant of limestone and gypsum substrates of southern Nevada and northern Arizona, appears to have "boom and bust" cycles throughout its range. The species is listed as a critically endangered species in Nevada. In years when the bearpoppy is in low numbers, the appearance of near extinction causes considerable alarm among conservationists. In years of bearpoppy abundance, conservation concerns are lessened. Surveys for bearpoppies on sites slated for development during years of dormancy may reveal no live plants, and hence, no apparent reason for not allowing development of the site. An analysis of 6 years of monitoring data from seven transect sites throughout Clark County, Nevada shows site-specific dynamism in bearpoppy demography, as well as range-wide trends. Populations across the range of the species do not always flower, die, or recruit at the same times, but all populations monitored are currently experiencing declines. Bearpoppy habitat is described in the absence of live bearpoppies in order to attempt to protect bearpoppies during periods of dormancy.

Rankin, R.L., D. Maxwell, R. Eales and M.K. Patrick. Trinidad State Junior College, 600 Prospect, Trinidad, Colorado 81082. Distribution and microhabitat of the rare Canadian River spiny aster in Colorado. ORAL PRESENTATION

Counts of the rare Canadian River spiny aster, Herrickia (Eurybia, syn.) horrida, were taken in Colorado in 2001-2003. The population in 2003 was approximately 2,320 plants. Population density was estimated at 431 plants/hectare/occurrence. This species was formerly listed as a Federal C2 species (possible for inclusion on the endangered list but appropriate or substantial biological data is lacking), is a Nature Conservancy G3/S1 species (globally vulnerable with 21-100 known occurrences and Colorado status as critically imperiled with 5 or fewer known occurrences), and has a New Mexico Rare Plant Technical Council code of 1-1-2. Only four isolated populations are known from Colorado, and all are in Las Animas County. One of the four sites was discovered in 2003. All occurrences are in ponderosa pine habitat. None of these areas have been grazed in recent history by domestic livestock. When H. horrida were transplanted to a site with livestock, a cow was observed severely grazing the transplanted asters. The microhabitat appears to be small alluvial fans at the base of naturally occurring drainage areas. All plants found are in very small microhabitats that receive additional water because of the drainage pattern. In November 2002, highway maintenance operations by the Colorado Department of Transportation destroyed 117 of the asters.

Rankin, R.L. and R.J. Santisteven. Trinidad State Junior College, 600 Prospect, Trinidad, Colorado 81082. Recovery strategies for the rare Canadian River spiny aster on the Bosque del Oso Wildlife Management Area, Colorado. POSTER

Canadian River spiny aster, Herrickia (Eurybia, syn.) horrida, is found on the Bosque del Oso Wildlife Management Area (BdOWMA) and three other sites in southern Colorado. Herrickia horrida recovery strategies for BdOWMA are given. Prescribed, controlled burns are recommended for mixed conifer stands and ponderosa pines stands. If Linaria vulgaris (yellow toadflax) is present, manual thinning should occur instead of fire. Herrickia horrida microhabitat areas (drainage areas with increased moisture) within the 2,460-acre Spring Fire of 2002 should be monitored. Gambel oak, Quercus gambelii, should be controlled around H. horrida microhabitat following burns. Domestic livestock should be excluded from ponderosa pine stands. Known exotic plants (45 species) were ranked based on potential impacts. Control methods are given for the top-ranked species (Linaria vulgaris, Centaurea diffusa, Centaurea repens, Bromus inermis, Cirsium arvense, Cirsium vulgare, Convolvulus arvensis, Carduus nutans). Disturbed areas (roads, pipelines) should be targeted for aggressive control of non-natives. Herrickia horrida plants that are germinated from seeds collected from a larger population (not from BdOWMA) should be transplanted into appropriate microhabitat sites on BdOWMA. Germination research is underway. This research is supported by a Colorado Alliance for Minority Participation grant.

Reeves, L.M. and L. Lundquist. San Juan College Herbarium, San Juan College, 4601 College Blvd., Farmington, New Mexico 87402. The Flora of the Four Corners Region Project as a means for discovering new populations and records of the region's endemic and rare plants and making them available for studies of rare plant monitoring and interrelationships. POSTER

The Four Corners Region, as a major and central portion of the Colorado Plateau, representing the drainage of the San Juan River, is one the major centers of endemism in the United States. With approximately 2,500 species of vascular plants, including several new species and varieties as well as hundreds of new records, the Region poses opportunities for study of rare plant relationships, pollination studies, and distribution changes due to global warming and other environmental modifications. The Project serves as the first comprehensive baseline documentation of vascular plant distribution in the Region. Several endemics, such as Aliciella Formosa (Aztec gilia) have potential for ongoing pollination and population studies. This is one of the many regional taxa under enormous pressure from oil and gas development. It has been the subject of unsuccessful mitigation investigation to ameliorate habitat fragmentation.

Sivinski, R.C. New Mexico Forestry Division, P.O. Box 1948, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87504. Effects of a natural fire on a Kuenzler's hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus fendleri var. kuenzleri) and nylon hedgehog cactus (Echinocereus viridiflorus var. cylindricus) population in southeastern New Mexico. ORAL PRESENTATION

During the summer of 1992, a natural wildfire burned 250 acres of juniper savanna on Rawhide Ridge in the Guadalupe Mountains of southeastern New Mexico. This fire burned through the center of a Kuenzler's hedgehog cactus population. This threatened cactus is locally sympatric with the more abundant nylon hedgehog cactus, which has similar growth form and stature. The local populations of both cacti were assessed within equal areas of burned and unburned habitats in May 1999. Burn area density of Kuenzler's hedgehog cactus was about one-third the density of unburned habitat. Nylon hedgehog cactus density in the burn area was about one-fifth the density of adjacent unburned habitat. The majority of individuals of both species found in the burned habitat appeared to be new recruits after the fire. Therefore, mortality was extremely high during this fire and population recovery is very slow for both species.

Sivinski, R.C.1 and C. McDonald2. 1New Mexico Forestry Division, P.O. Box 1948, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87504, 2USDA-Forest Service, 333 Broadway Blvd., SE, Rm. 209, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87102. Knowlton's cactus (Pediocactus knowltonii): eighteen years of monitoring and recovery actions. ORAL PRESENTATION

Pediocactus knowltonii is a rare, endemic cactus that is presently known to occur on a single 20-acre hill in northwestern New Mexico near the Colorado border. It was listed as federally endangered in 1979. Population monitoring and recovery actions were initiated when the Recovery Plan was adopted in 1985. The land at the type locality has been donated to The Nature Conservancy and long-term monitoring plots have been annually studied since 1986. This population reached peak density in 1994 and is presently in decline. A total of 301 clones were made and transplanted to two nearby habitats above the Los Pinos arm of Navajo Lake, beginning in 1985. Transplant survival and flowering were good, but natural recruitment has been slow. Seeding trails were also conducted at both locations in 1985 and 1991. Only 4% of seeds planted became established as adult plants and no new recruitment has yet been observed.

Skarsgard, A.G.1 and C.J. Stubben2. 1NASA White Sands Test Facility, P.O. Box 20, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88004, 2New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003. Conservation of Peniocereus greggii at the White Sands Test Facility. POSTER

The night-blooming cereus (Peniocereus greggii var. greggii) is a rare cactus that is usually found hidden in creosote and other Chihuahuan Desert scrub plants. On the White Sands Test Facility near Las Cruces, New Mexico, we have located 80 plants scattered around developed areas on the facility over the last 3 years. Current management focuses on avoiding impacts near plants, but the long-term survival of this population will depend on their ability to recruit, which involves three key mutualisms operating at broader scales: pollination by hawkmoths, seed dispersal by birds, and seedling establishment under nurse plants. Also, the spatial and temporal pattern of flowering influences fruit set, and we are currently monitoring these patterns as part of an initial study to develop a comprehensive management plan. Most of the flowers that bloomed withered and fell off the plants within 2 weeks after opening, and the remaining flowers developed into bright red fruits. In May 2002, 46% of the plants flowered, and only 11 of 57 total flowers set fruit. In May and early June 2003, 58% of the plants flowered, and 65 of 109 total flowers set fruit, but most of these fruits dried out quickly during the dry summer months and dropped to the ground.

Stubben, C.J. and B.G. Milligan. Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003. Conservation implications of spur length variation in long-spur columbines (Aquilegia longissima). ORAL PRESENTATION

Populations of long-spur columbine (Aquilegia longissima) with spurs 10-16 cm long are known only from a few populations in Texas (Davis and Chisos Mountains), a historical collection near Baboquivari Peak, Arizona, and scattered populations in Coahuila, Chihuahua, and Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Populations of yellow columbine with spurs 7-10 cm long are also found in Arizona, Texas, and Mexico, and are now classified as A. longissima in the recent Flora of North America, but not by other columbine researchers historically. In a multivariate analysis of floral characters from 12 populations representing a continuous range of spur lengths, populations with spurs 10-16 cm long are clearly separate from other sites based on increasing spur length and decreasing petal and sepal width. The longer-spurred columbines generally flower after monsoon rains in late summer or fall, and occur in intermittently wet canyons and steep slopes in pine-oak forests. Also, longer-spurred flowers can be pollinated by large hawkmoths with tongues 9-15 cm long. Populations with intermediate spurs are most likely the result of hybridization with the common yellow columbine (A. chrysantha), and uncertainty about the taxonomic status of intermediates has contributed to a lack of conservation efforts for declining populations of the long-spur columbine.

Terry, M.1, D. Price2 and J. Poole2. 1Department of Biology, Sul Ross State University, Alpine, Texas 79832, 2Wildlife Diversity Branch, Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, 3000 S. IH-35, Suite 100, Austin, Texas 78704. A tale of two cacti - the complex relationship between peyote (Lophophora williamsii) and the endangered star cactus (Astrophytum asterias). POSTER

Astrophytum asterias(Zuccarini) Lemaire, commonly called star cactus, is a federally listed endangered cactus endemic to the Tamaulipan thornscrub ecoregion of extreme southern Texas, USA, and Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Only two subpopulations totaling about 2,000 plants are presently known in Texas. Star cactus, known locally as "star peyote", is highly sought by collectors. This small, dome-shaped spineless, eight-ribbed cactus is sometimes mistaken for peyote (Lophophora williamsii), which grows in the same or adjacent habitats. Peyote is harvested from native thornscrub habitats in Texas by local hispanic people and sold to peyoteros, licensed distributors who sell the peyote to Native American Church members. Annual peyote harvests in Texas approach 2,000,000 "buttons" (crowns). Although the peyoteros do not buy star cactus from harvesters, they cultivate star cactus in peyote gardens at their places of business and give star cacti to their customers as lagniappe. If even 0.1% of harvested "peyote" is actually star cactus, the annual take of this endangered cactus approaches the total number of wild specimens known in the U.S. This real but unquantifiable take, together with information from interviews with local residents, suggests the existence of many more star cactus populations than have been documented.

Titus, P.J.2 and J.H. Titus1,2. 1Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, Palisades, New York, 2618 W. Placita de la Poza, Tucson, Arizona 85704. Huachuca water umbel monitoring - a disturbance-adapted endangered southeastern Arizona wetland plant. POSTER

The ecology of Huachuca water umbel, a federally-endangered clonal wetland plant, is little understood. Monitoring plots established in 2001 at Bingham Cienega, a preserve owned by Pima County, Arizona, documented phenology and the role of interspecific competition. In half of the monitoring plots, potentially competitive vegetation was clipped at ground surface for five seasons. After two seasons, treatment plots contained more and taller water umbel leaves, and flowers were present. However, leaf numbers fell precipitously in all plots during fall 2002 and were not present in spring and fall 2003, likely as a consequence of prolonged drought and low soil moisture levels. This emphasizes the importance of the lack of aboveground evidence of extant populations during drought years. In three seasons of seedbank studies of Bingham Cienega, water umbel did not germinate but viable seeds were found in the soil. A thick layer of post-fire sediment deposited in 2003 contained more non-native species than were previously present in the cienega. In December 2003, 127 Huachuca water umbel plugs were planted into a spring system at Finley Tank at Audubon Research Ranch, Elgin, Arizona in order to assess reintroduction possibilities for this species. Monitoring efforts are ongoing.

Tonne, P.C. and T.D. Meehan. New Mexico Natural Heritage Program, Museum of Southwestern Biology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131. Pollination ecology of Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus. ORAL PRESENTATION

The Holy Ghost ipomopsis (Ipomopsis sancti-spiritus) is a monocarpic, biennial-to-short-lived-perennial herb endemic to a single canyon in north-central New Mexico. Conservation of this species requires an understanding of factors that might account for its limited distribution and abundance. To that end, we examined several aspects of the species' pollination ecology in the field. Flower-bagging experiments showed that flowers open to pollinator visitation produced more mature fruit than those excluded from pollinators. Systematic observations indicated that Holy Ghost ipomopsis flowers were visited by several pollinator taxa; the six most frequent were Snow's skippers (Paratrytone snowi), house flies (Musca sp.), golden skippers (Poanes taxiles), hoverflies (Xanthogramma sp.), sphinx moths (Hyles lineata), and honey bees (Apis mellifera). Inspection of pollen and fluorescent dye particles on flower visitors indicated that Snow's skippers, golden skippers, sphinx moths, syrphid flies (Syrphidae), bees (Apoidea), and plant bugs (Collaria sp.) carried pollen between flowers. Fluorescent pollen dye experiments showed that pollinators moved pollen up to 65 meters from source plants over a 36-hour period, though movements of less than 20 meters were, by far, most frequent. Concurrent observations of sympatric scarlet gilia (Ipomopsis aggregata) indicated: 1) that there was little overlap of pollinator taxa between the two Ipomopsis species, and 2) that Holy Ghost Ipomopsis was visited by pollinator taxa more frequently than its common and widespread congener.

Topinka, J.R.1, A.J. Donovan2, J. Anderson3 and B. May1. 1Department of Animal Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California. 2The Bee Works, 1870 West Prince Rd., Suite 16, Tucson, Arizona. 3Bureau of Land Management, 21605 N. Seventh Ave., Phoenix, Arizona. Genetic evaluation of the taxonomic status of Kearney's bluestar, Amsonia kearneyana (Apocynaceae). ORAL PRESENTATION

Kearney's bluestar, Amsonia kearneyana (Apocynaceae), is a rare endemic plant that occurs in a number of small, spatially isolated populations in the Baboquivari Mountains of Arizona. Kearney's bluestar is a member of the subgenus Sphinctosiphon, which is comprised of five species, and occur from the Colorado Plateau to the northeastern Sonoran Desert. Consistently small and highly dispersed populations and morphological similarity of species have contributed to significant taxonomic revisions in the genus. We have developed a suite of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers to help elucidate the taxonomy. Samples from populations from seven species of Amsonia representing all three southwestern subgenera Sphinctosiphon, Longiflora, and Articularia were included in this study.

Topinka, J.R.1, A.J. Donovan2 and B. May1. 1Department of Animal Science, University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616, 2The Bee Works, 1870 West Prince Rd. Suite 16, Tucson, Arizona 85705. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Kearney's bluestar (Amsonia kearneyana) and cross-amplification in other Amsonia species. POSTER

Kearney's bluestar (Amsonia kearneyana) is a highly endangered herbaceous perennial in the family Apocynaceae. The species is found only in the Baboquivari Mountains of southern Arizona. We report the isolation and development of 12 novel microsatellite loci for Kearney's bluestar. Numbers of alleles ranged from two to four and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.20 to 0.80 in the nine loci found to be polymorphic in the test population. All loci were also tested for cross-amplification in five other Amsonia species representing two subgenera from the southwestern United States. Some loci not polymorphic in the Kearney's bluestar were polymorphic in other species. Many of the known populations of Kearney's bluestar are sufficiently small for the maintenance of genetic diversity to be of concern. We have developed these microsatellite markers to evaluate the levels and distribution of genetic variability among populations of Kearney's bluestar as part of an ongoing project investigating the ecology of the species.

Willoughby, J.W. Bureau of Land Management, California State Office, 2800 Cottage Way, Sacramento, California 95825. Monitoring of Peirson's milkvetch (Astragalus magdalenae var. peirsonii) in the Algodones Dunes, Imperial County, California, 1998-2002. ORAL PRESENTATION

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), with assistance from other agencies and volunteers, monitored Peirson's milkvetch (Astraglaus magdalenae var. peirsonii) and five other rare plant taxa throughout the Algodones Dunes between 1998 and 2002. The monitoring was designed to allow comparisons to a 1977 BLM-contracted study of these plants. Only the results for Peirson's milkvetch will be discussed here. There is a high positive correlation between the abundance of the species in any year with growing season precipitation (r2 = 0.894), strongly indicating that this species, though considered to be a short-lived perennial, behaves very much like an annual. Multivariate repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that the response of the species to precipitation in the area closed to off-highway vehicle (OHV) use was parallel to that of the species in the area open to OHVs, arguing against a significant OHV impact, at least in the large areas of the dunes to which the study allows inferences to be made. The 1998-2002 study has some limitations resulting from its use of abundance class values rather than population estimates. In 2004, BLM will begin an intensive monitoring program that will result in actual population estimates for the seven management areas of the dunes within which Peirson's milkvetch occurs. The results of pilot sampling in 2003 to test the new methodology will be briefly discussed.

Windham, M.D. and T. Meyer. University of Utah, Utah Museum of Natural History, 1390 E. President's Circle, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112. Biosystematic studies of Cronquist's woodyaster (Xylorhiza cronquistii), a rare southern Utah endemic. ORAL PRESENTATION

Xylorhiza cronquistii Welsh & Atwood is a rare woodyaster from southern Utah that has been proposed for federal listing. Its recognition as a distinct species has been questioned by some workers, who point out that it is morphologically intermediate between X. confertifolia (Cronq.) T.J.Watson and X. tortifolia (Torr. & Gray) Greene var. imberbis (Cronq.) T.J.Watson. Populations of Cronquist's woodyaster apparently are confined to the region where these species are sympatric, and it has been suggested that Xylorhiza cronquistii is nothing more than a hybrid swarm that should not be considered for protection under the Endangered Species Act. In order to determine the appropriate classification of X. cronquistii, we have been conducting detailed biosystematic studies of this taxon and its near congeners. Evidence from morphology, cytogenetics, enzyme electrophoresis, DNA sequences, and artificial hybridization experiments will be presented in an effort to resolve one critical question: Is Xylorhiza cronquistii worthy of recognition and protection as a distinct species?


Photo credits in header Peniocereus greggii var. greggii © T. Todsen,
Lepidospartum burgessii © M. Howard, Argemone pleiacantha ssp. pinnatisecta © R. Sivinski
Design: J. Mygatt; Copyright © 1999-2005 New Mexico Rare Plant Technical Council